Saturday, December 9, 2017

"Wrong Way" Pilot Douglas Corrigan 1995 Fairhaven Cemetery

Douglas Corrigan (January 22, 1907 – December 9, 1995) was an American aviator born in Galveston, Texas. He was nicknamed "Wrong Way" in 1938. After a transcontinental flight from Long Beach, California, to New York City, he flew from Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn, New York, to Ireland, though his flight plan was filed to return to Long Beach. He claimed his unauthorized flight was due to a navigational error, caused by heavy cloud cover that obscured landmarks and low-light conditions, causing him to misread his compass. However, he was a skilled aircraft mechanic (he was one of the builders of Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis) and had made several modifications to his own plane, preparing it for his transatlantic flight. He had been denied permission to make a nonstop flight from New York to Ireland, and his "navigational error" was seen as deliberate. Nevertheless, he never publicly admitted to having flown to Ireland intentionally.

Early life

The son of a construction engineer and a teacher, he was named Clyde Groce Corrigan[1] after his father, but legally adopted the name Douglas as an adult.[2] Corrigan was of Irish descent.[3] The family moved often, until his parents finally divorced and shared custody of their children. Corrigan finally settled with his mother, brother Harry, and sister Evelyn in Los Angeles. Quitting high school, he went to work in construction.

In October 1925, Corrigan saw people paying to be taken for short rides in a Curtiss JN-4 "Jenny" biplane near his home. He paid the $2.50 (equal to $34.14 today) for his own ride. A week later, he began flying lessons, spending non-flying time watching and learning from local aircraft mechanics. After twenty lessons, he made his first solo flight on March 25, 1926.

Aircraft mechanic

Ryan Aeronautical Company operated from the airfield where Corrigan learned to fly, and hired him for their San Diego factory. Corrigan was responsible for assembling the wing and installing the fuel tanks and instrument panel of Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis. Corrigan and his colleague Dan Burnett increased the lift of the aircraft by extending the wing 10 feet (3.0 m) longer than any previous Ryan design. Corrigan pulled the chocks from the Spirit of St Louis when Lindbergh took off from San Diego to New York to prepare for his historic flight.

After Lindbergh's success, Corrigan decided to duplicate it and selected Ireland as his objective. He discussed the idea with friends and mentioned flying without permission. When Ryan Aeronautical moved to St. Louis in October 1928, Corrigan stayed in San Diego as a mechanic for the newly formed Airtech School. With more than 50 students flying each day, Corrigan could only get flight time during his lunch break.

During his short flights, Corrigan performed aerobatic stunts. His favorite maneuver was the chandelle, in strings of up to a dozen, spiraling from close to the ground. The company disapproved and prohibited him from performing stunts in the company aircraft. Corrigan simply flew to a field further south where his stunts could not be seen by his employers.

Corrigan moved from job to job as an aircraft mechanic, using his employers' planes to develop his flying skills. He gained his transport pilot's certificate in October 1929, and in 1930, started a passenger service between small East Coast towns, with his friend Steve Reich. The most lucrative part of the business turned out to be barnstorming displays promoting short recreational plane rides. Despite business success, after a few years, Corrigan decided to return to the West Coast. In 1933, he spent $310[4] on a used 1929 Curtiss Robin OX-5 monoplane and flew it home, where he returned to work as an aircraft mechanic and began to modify the Robin for a transatlantic flight.

Transatlantic flier

Having installed an engine built from two old Wright Whirlwind J6-5 engines (affording 165 hp (123 kW) instead of the 90 hp (67 kW) of the original) and extra fuel tanks, Corrigan applied to the Bureau of Air Commerce in 1935, seeking permission to make a nonstop flight from New York to Ireland. The application was rejected; his plane was deemed unsound for a nonstop transatlantic trip, although it was certified to the lower standard for cross-country journeys.

Over the next two years, Corrigan made repeated modifications and reapplications for full certification, but none succeeded. Indeed, by 1937, after extensive modifications in the face of increasing regulation, his aircraft was refused renewal of its licence because it was deemed to be too unstable for safe flight. His autobiography expresses his exasperation with official resistance and he is widely thought to have responded by deciding that year to make an unofficial crossing.

Although he never admitted it, he apparently planned a late arrival at New York so that he could refill his tanks and leave for Ireland after airport officials had gone home from work. Mechanical problems extended his unapproved inbound flight to nine days, which delayed him beyond the Atlantic "safe weather window," and he returned to California. As a result of this trip, he named his plane Sunshine, however, federal officials notified Californian airfield officials that Sunshine was not airworthy and it was grounded for six months.

On July 9, 1938, Corrigan again left California for Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn, New York. He had repaired the engine, taking his total spent on the aircraft to about $900 (equal to $15,313 today),[5] gained an experimental license, and obtained permission for a transcontinental flight with conditional consent for a return trip. With the Robin cruising at 85 miles per hour (137 km/h) for maximum fuel efficiency, the outward journey took him 27 hours. Fuel efficiency became critical towards the end of the flight: a gasoline leak developed, filling the cockpit with fumes.

Upon his unannounced arrival at Floyd Bennett Field, in the midst of Howard Hughes's preparations for takeoff on a world tour, Corrigan decided repairing the leak would take too long if he was to meet his schedule. His logged flight plan had him returning to California on July 17. Before take off, Corrigan asked the manager of Floyd Bennett Field, Kenneth P. Behr, which runway to use, and Behr told him to use any runway as long as he didn't take off to the west, in the direction of the administration building where Behr had his office. As recorded in Corrigan's autobiography, Behr wished him "Bon Voyage" prior to take-off, perhaps in a nod to Corrigan's intentions to fly the Atlantic. Upon take off at 5:15 in the morning with 320 US gallons (1,200 L) of gasoline and 16 US gallons (61 L) of oil, Corrigan headed east from the 4,200-foot (1,300 m) runway of Floyd Bennett Field and kept going. (Behr later swore publicly he had no foreknowledge of Corrigan's intentions.)

Corrigan claimed to have noticed his "error" after flying for about 26 hours. This is not entirely consistent with his claim that after 10 hours, he felt his feet go cold; the cockpit floor was awash with gasoline leaking from the unrepaired tank. He used a screwdriver to punch a hole through the cockpit floor so that the fuel would drain away on the side opposite the hot exhaust pipe, reducing the risk of a midair explosion. Had he been truly unaware he was over ocean, it seems likely he would have descended at this point; instead, he claimed to have increased the engine speed by almost 20% in the hope of decreasing his flight time.

He landed at Baldonnel Aerodrome, County Dublin, on July 18, after a 28-hour, 13-minute flight. His provisions had been just two chocolate bars, two boxes of fig bars, and 25 US gal (94.64 L) of water.

Corrigan's plane had fuel tanks mounted on the front, allowing him to see only out of the sides. He had no radio and his compass was 20 years old. The journalist H. R. Knickerbocker, who met Corrigan in Ireland after his arrival, wrote in 1941:
"You may say that Corrigan's flight could not be compared to Lindbergh's in its sensational appeal as the first solo flight across the ocean. Yes, but in another way the obscure little Irishman's flight was the more audacious of the two. Lindbergh had a plane specially constructed, the finest money could buy. He had lavish financial backing, friends to help him at every turn. Corrigan had nothing but his own ambition, courage, and ability. His plane, a nine-year-old Curtiss Robin, was the most wretched-looking jalopy. 
As I looked over it at the Dublin airdrome I really marveled that anyone should have been rash enough even to go in the air with it, much less try to fly the Atlantic. He built it, or rebuilt it, practically as a boy would build a scooter out of a soapbox and a pair of old roller skates. It looked it. The nose of the engine hood was a mass of patches soldered by Corrigan himself into a crazy-quilt design. The door behind which Corrigan crouched for twenty-eight hours was fastened together with a piece of baling wire. The reserve gasoline tanks put together by Corrigan, left him so little room that he had to sit hunched forward with his knees cramped, and not enough window space to see the ground when landing."[6]

Aviation officials took 600 words to list the regulations broken by his flight in a telegram (a medium that encourages brevity by charging at a rate per word). Despite the extent of Corrigan's illegality, he received only a mild punishment; his pilot's certificate was suspended for 14 days. He and his plane returned to New York on the steamship Manhattan and arrived on August 4, the last day of his suspension. His return was marked with great celebration. More people attended his Broadway ticker-tape parade than had honored Lindbergh after his triumph. He was also given a ticker tape parade in Chicago.

He appeared as a contestant on the July 16, 1957 episode of To Tell the Truth.

Later life

To Corrigan's great disappointment, Lindbergh, his hero and the reason he had made the flight, never acknowledged the accomplishment.[6] Corrigan wrote his autobiography, That's My Story, within months of the flight; it was published for the Christmas market on December 15, 1938. He also endorsed 'wrong-way' products including a watch that ran backwards. The following year, he starred as himself in RKO Radio Pictures' The Flying Irishman (1939), a movie biography. The $75,000 he earned was the equivalent of 30 years income at his airfield jobs.

According to a letter written to a fan in 1940,[7] Corrigan claimed to have "no hobbies except working on airplanes or machinery." When the United States entered World War II, he tested bombers and flew in the Ferry Command, a division of the Air Transport Command. In 1946, he gained less than 2% of the vote running for the U.S. Senate as a member of the Prohibition Party, running against Republican William F. Knowland. He then worked as a commercial pilot for a small California airline.

Corrigan retired from aviation in 1950 and bought an 18-acre (7.3 ha) orange grove in Santa Ana, California. He lived there with his wife and three sons until his death on December 9, 1995. He knew nothing about raising oranges, and said he learned by copying his neighbors. His wife died in 1966, and Corrigan sold most of his grove for development, keeping only the ranch-style house. One of the streets in the 93-house estate is named after him.[8] He became reclusive after one of his sons died in a private plane crash on Santa Catalina Island, California in 1972. In 1988, however, he joined in the golden anniversary celebration of his famous "wrong way" flight, allowing enthusiasts to retrieve the Robin from its hangar. The plane was reassembled and the engine was run successfully.[9] Corrigan was so excited that the organizers placed guards at the plane's wings while he was at the show and considered tethering the tail to a police car to prevent him from taking off in it.[4] Later, Corrigan became elusive about the plane's location. It was rumored he had dismantled and stored it in several locations to prevent its theft.[10]

An anthology of aircraft related mysteries published in 1995 claimed that Corrigan was elected an Honorary Member of the 'Liars Club of America' at the age of 84, and that the 'honor,' (as had so many other suggestions over the years since his transatlantic flight) had been politely but firmly refused. Up to his death, Corrigan still maintained that he had flown transatlantic by accident.

In popular culture

Corrigan's "error" caught the imagination of the depressed American public and inspired many jokes. The nickname "'Wrong Way' Corrigan" passed into common use (sometimes confused with the memory of 1929's "Wrong Way" Riegels football incident)[11][12] and is still mentioned (or used as satire) when someone has the reputation for taking the wrong direction. For example: Corrigan was directly referenced in the 1938 Three Stooges short Flat Foot Stooges. Curly states, "Hey, we're doing a Corrigan!" after realizing they are heading in the wrong direction to get to the fire they need to extinguish. A character named "Wrong Way Feldman" was portrayed by Hans Conreid in two episodes of Gilligan's Island in the 1960s. Also, in the short 'Birds on a Wire,' part of the last episode (1998) of Animaniacs, Pesto the Goodfeather pigeon expresses outrage by exclaiming "Are you saying that I don't know my directions? That I'm some sort of 'Wrong Way' Corrigan?" when he is pointed out the fact that he is confusing north with west.


Among aviation historians, Corrigan is remembered as one of the brave few who made early transoceanic flights. On his death in 1995, he was buried at Fairhaven Memorial Park in Santa Ana.[13] His memorial is a small horizontal plaque bearing a facsimile of his signature.[13]


1. "The Flying Irishman (1939)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 22 November 2010.
2. Fadiman 1985.
3. "Texas Trails: "Wrong Way" Corrigan". 2012-04-17. 
4. Thomas, Robert McG Jr. (December 14, 1995). "Douglas Corrigan, 88, Dies: Wrong-Way Trip Was the Right Way to Celebrity as an Aviator". New York Times. 
5. "Corrigan Off On Mystery Hop". Allentown Morning Call. July 18, 1938. p. 1.
6. Knickerbocker, H.R. (1941). Is Tomorrow Hitler's? 200 Questions On the Battle of Mankind. Reynal and Hitchcock. pp. 353–355.
7. Quinn's Auction Galleries Catalogue, Feb 2004
8. Marsh
9. Fyn
10. San Diego Air and Space Museum Arch Waller
11. Richard Goldstein. "COLLEGE FOOTBALL; Revisiting Wrong Way Riegels - New York Times". 
12. Guts in the Clutch: 77 Legendary Triumphs, Heartbreaks, and Wild Finishes in ... - Richard J. Noyes - Google Books. 2009-04-30. 
13. Douglas "Wrong Way" Corrigan at Find a Grave


'Douglas "Wrong Way" Corrigan', Find A Grave Cemetery Records, (2000). 
Important Autographs with Fine Antiques and Decorative Arts Auction Catalogue, (Falls Church, VA: Quinn's Auction Galleries, February 16, 2004).
Corrigan, Douglas. That's My Story (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1938)
Fadiman, Clifton. The Little, Brown Book of Anecdotes, (New York: Little, Brown, 1985) ISBN 978-0-316-27301-5
Fasolino, Chris. 'The Adventures of Wrong-Way Corrigan', The History Net (2001). 
Fraser, Chelsea Curtis. Famous American Flyers, (New York: Thomas Y. Crowell, 1941)
Fyn, Chip. 'The Story of Wrong Way Corrigan', Fiddler's Green (April 2003). 
Knickerbocker, H. R. Is Tomorrow Hitler’s?, (New York: Reynal and; Hitchcock, 1941).
Marsh, Diann. 'Wrong Way Corrigan', Santa Ana History. 
Onkst, David H. 'Douglas "Wrong Way" Corrigan', US Centennial of Flight Commission. 
Sears, Stan. 'Corrigan’s Way: Right or Wrong, He Made His Mark on History', Airport Journals (March 2005)]. 
Wallechinsky, David and Wallace, Irving 'Where Are They Now? Flying Irishman Douglas Corrigan'. (1981). 

Wednesday, December 6, 2017

Warhol Superstar & Transgender Actress Holly Woodlawn 2015 Hollywood Forever Cemetery

Holly Woodlawn (October 26, 1946 – December 6, 2015) was a transgender Puerto Rican actress and Warhol superstar who appeared in his movies Trash (1970) and Women in Revolt (1972).[1][2][3] She was probably best known as the Holly in Lou Reed's hit pop song "Walk on the Wild Side."

Early life

Woodlawn was born as Haroldo Santiago Franceschi Rodriguez Danhakl in Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico, to an American soldier of German descent, and Aminta Rodriguez, a native Puerto Rican, and grew up in Miami Beach, where she came out at a young age.[4] 

She adopted the name Holly from the heroine of Breakfast at Tiffany's, and in 1969 added the surname from a sign she saw on an episode of I Love Lucy. After changing her name she began to falsely tell people she was the heiress to Woodlawn Cemetery.

In 1962, at the age of fifteen, Woodlawn left Florida heading north. She recollects that "I hocked some jewelry and ... made it all the way to Georgia, where the money ran out and ... had to hitchhike the rest of the way" to New York City.[4]

She recalled in her memoir, A Low Life in High Heels:

"At the age of 16, when most kids were cramming for trigonometry exams, I was turning tricks, living off the streets and wondering when my next meal was coming."

By 1969, she had considered sex reassignment surgery, but decided against it.[4]

Movie career

Woodlawn met Andy Warhol at the Factory, at a screening of Flesh (1968). Through him she met Jackie Curtis, who cast Woodlawn in her play Heaven Grand in Amber Orbit in the autumn of 1969.

In October, she originally was given a bit role in Trash, but so impressed director and screenwriter Paul Morrissey that he re-wrote it to give her a much larger role. In Trash, Joe Dallesandro plays a heroin addict on a quest to score who, ambivalent about his sexuality, has a transgender girlfriend played by Woodlawn. The pair contrasted the other with violent episodes of over-dose matched by improvisation and sulky rejection. Woodlawn ad libbed many of the lines herself, preferring creativity to strict adherence to the script. Woodlawn was paid $25 per day during filming, spending the last day's on heroin. In October 1970, she received word from the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences that George Cukor, supported by others, was petitioning the Academy to nominate her for Best Actress for her work in Trash, however, nothing came of this. 

In Morrisey's next film she was joined by others in Warhol's pantheon of stars, to play in Women in Revolt, a satirical look at the women's rights movement and the PIGS (politically involved girls). In this film, she became one of the first people to say the word cunt in cinema.[5]

In May 1971, Woodlawn replaced Candy Darling at the La MaMa theatre in a production of Vain Victory written and directed by Jackie Curtis. She was arrested and briefly incarcerated in Puerto Rico after being caught shoplifting. Woodlawn created a stir when she was arrested in New York City after impersonating the wife of the French Ambassador to the United Nations. When arrested, she was taken to the Women's House of Detention then transferred to a men's facility when her assigned sex at birth was discovered.

In 1972, director Robert Kaplan and cinematographer Paul Glickman concocted the idea of a movie whose premise would be using a transgender woman as the lead in a film without revealing the sex of the actress. Woodlawn played a young, starstruck girl hoping for success as an actress in New York City. The film, Scarecrow in a Garden of Cucumbers, was a low budget, 16mm, unsuccessful musical feature. The song "In The Very Last Row," written by Marshall Barer, was performed by Bette Midler.

In 1977, Woodlawn moved to San Francisco. She returned to New York later in the year, appearing on Geraldo Rivera's talk show, before being jailed again in 1978 for violating terms of probation. She was released on the appeal of politician Ethan Geto, who helped organize a benefit for her. By 1979, she had surrendered to a faltering career, cut her hair and moved back to her parents' home in Miami, while working as a busser at Benihana.

Back in New York in the mid-1980s, she became a featured singer in Gabriel Rotello's Downtown Dukes and Divas revues at clubs such as The Limelight and The Palladium, and a star of various musicals and revues mounted by the songwriting and producing team of Scott Wittman and Marc Shaiman. In 1991 she published her autobiography, the Holly Woodlawn Story, "A Low Life in High Heels" with writer Jeff Copeland.

During the 1990s, Woodlawn achieved a modest film and theatrical comeback, making cameo appearances in productions such as Night Owl (1993) and Billy's Hollywood Screen Kiss (1998). After Warhol's death, she was interviewed frequently on his life and influence. At the time of her death she resided in West Hollywood where in the late 90s she participated in riot grrrl shows with Revolution Rising, and recorded spoken words for songs with experimental recordings by the band Lucid Nation. 

In 1999 she was in a controversial film about conjoined twins who live in a run down motel in a small town. Twin Falls Idaho was followed four years later by Milwaukee, Minnesota. More recently she acted in Transparent, a U.S. television series about a transgender father played by Jeffrey Tambor.


When Holly Woodlawn appeared in public she would dress as a dazzling alternative image of Jean Harlow, complete with wig and frosted lipstick. She fancied herself as a glamorous actress, saying:

"I was very happy when I gradually became a Warhol superstar. I felt like Elizabeth Taylor. Little did I realize that not only would there be no money, but that your star would flicker for two seconds and that was it - the drugs, the parties, it was fabulous."

In the opinion of Vincent Canby, "Holly Woodlawn, especially, is something to behold, a comic book Mother Courage who fancies herself as Marlene Dietrich but sounds more often like Phil Silvers."[6]

Cabaret artiste

Woodlawn began performing in cabaret shows in sold-out New York and Los Angeles performances in the early 2000s. She continued to travel with her cabaret show, most recently appearing in Manhattan's Laurie Beechman Theater in 2013.[7]


Woodlawn fell seriously ill in June 2015, and was hospitalized at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California. Tests later revealed that she had lesions on her liver and brain.[8] The lesions were later determined to be cancer. Woodlawn's health improved enough for her to be sent home, where she continued treatment and received in-home healthcare. She was later forced to vacate her West Hollywood, California, apartment due to flooding, and entered an assisted living facility in October.[9]

Woodlawn died of brain and liver cancer in Los Angeles on December 6, 2015.[10]

Holly Woodlawn is interred at Hollywood Forever Cemetery.

Woodlawn was included during the In-Memoriam segment at the 88th Academy Awards.[11]


Woodlawn's estate founded the Holly Woodlawn Memorial Fund for Transgender Youth at the Los Angeles LGBT Center.[12]

Lou Reed refers to Woodlawn in his song "Walk on the Wild Side", the opening verse of which describes her hitchhiking journey and gender transition:[13]

Holly came from Miami, F-L-A
Hitchhiked her way across the USA
Plucked her eyebrows on the way
Shaved her legs and then he was a she
She says, "Hey, babe, take a walk on the wild side."



Year Film Role Notes

1970 Trash Holly a.k.a. "Andy Warhol's Trash"
1971 Women In Revolt Holly
Is There Sex After Death? Herself
1972 Scarecrow in a Garden of Cucumbers Eve Harrington / Rhett Butler
1973 Broken Goddess
1979 Tally Brown, New York Herself
1993 Night Owl Barfly
Madonna: Deeper and Deeper Music Video Herself
1995 The Matinee Idol Party Guest
Scathed Miss Antonia Curtis
1996 Phantom Pain
1998 Billy's Hollywood Screen Kiss
Beverly Hills Hustlers
1999 Twin Falls Idaho Flamboyant at Party
2002 The Cockettes Herself Documentary
2003 Milwaukee, Minnesota Transvestite
2004 Superstar in a Housedress Herself Documentary
2006 Jack Smith and the Destruction of Atlantis Herself Documentary
Andy Warhol: A Documentary Film Herself Documentary
2007 Alibi Gracie
2009 Heaven Wants Out
2010 Beautiful Darling Herself Documentary
The Lie Cherry Post-production
2011 The Ghosts of Los Angeles Holly Short
2012 She Gone Rogue Aunt Holly Short
2013 Continental Herself Documentary
East of the Tar Pits Mattie a.k.a. "Gary LeGault's East of the Tar Pits"


Year Title Role Notes

1971 An American Family Herself 1 episode
2015 Transparent Herself 2 episodes


1. Piepenburg, Erik (July 28, 2011). "When They Play Women, It's Not Just an Act." The New York Times.
2. Young, Ezra (September 22, 2014). "They're Trans, They're Hispanic, and They've Changed This World." The Advocate.
3. Vider, Stephen (October 23, 2014). "Why Is an Obscure 1968 Documentary in the Opening Credits of Transparent?" Slate.
4. Patterson, John (2007-09-26). "Oh, the things I did!" The Guardian. London, UK.
5. Murphy, JJ (4 March 2012). The Black Hole of the Camera: The Films of Andy Warhol. University of California Press. p. 239. ISBN 9780520271876.
6. "Holly Woodlawn, Transgender Star of 1970s Underground Films, Dies at 69." The New York Times. 8 December 2015.
7. Krasinski, Jennifer (May 16, 2013). "Holly Woodlawn." Art Forum.
8. Abramovitch, Seth (July 6, 2015). "Transgender Icon Holly Woodlawn Fights for Life at Cedars-Sinai." The Hollywood Reporter.
9. Gregoire, Paul (November 12, 2015). "Warhol Superstar and Trans Pioneer Holly Woodlawn Remains Unstoppable, Despite Cancer." Vice.
10. Grimes, William (December 7, 2015). "Holly Woodlawn, Transgender Star of 1970s Underground Films, Dies at 69". The New York Times. ; "Holly Woodlawn, inspiration behind Lou Reed's Walk on the Wild Side, dies at 69." The Guardian. December 7, 2015.
11. Oscar In-Memoriam Holly Woodlawn accessed 9/2/2016
12. "Warhol Muse Holly Woodlawn Endows Fund for Trans Youth."
13. "Holly Woodlawn, Lou Reed's Wild Side inspiration, dies at 69." BBC News.

Further reading

Colacello, Bob (August 1990). Holy Terror: Andy Warhol Close Up. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0060164195.
County, Jayne; Smith, Rupert (1995). Man Enough to be a Woman. Serpent's Tail. ISBN 9781852423384.
Woodlawn, Holly; Copeland, Jeff (1991). The Holly Woodlawn Story: A Low Life in High Heels. St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-0-312-06429-7.

Monday, December 4, 2017

LAPD Police Chief Thomas Reddin 2004 Hollywood Forever Cemetery

Thomas Reddin (June 25, 1916 – December 4, 2004) was a Los Angeles Police Department chief.

Reddin began his LAPD career in 1941 and was chief from February 1967 to May 1969. He was at the helm in 1967, when police clashed violently with thousands of anti-war protesters who gathered outside the Century Plaza Hotel, where President Lyndon Johnson was being honored.

Reddin helped modernize the department and introduced the community policing concept,[1] which "perceives the community as an agent and partner in promoting security rather than as a passive audience."[2] 

During his tenure, he allowed his department to give technical advice for the first three seasons of the revived version of the Jack Webb-created detective drama Dragnet (He even made an appearance at the end of the Season Two finale, "The Big Problem," in a plea for improved community relations between the department and the city) and during the first season (1968–1969) of the police drama Adam-12.

On June 5, 1968, after Robert Kennedy was assassinated at the old Ambassador Hotel, Reddin gained national attention for taking steps to ensure the safety of suspect Sirhan Sirhan so he could face trial.

After leaving the LAPD on May 6, 1969, Reddin became a newscaster for KTLA-TV. He was a candidate for mayor in 1973, but lost to City Councilman Tom Bradley, a former LAPD lieutenant. In his latter years he had a successful career operating, Tom Reddin Security Services, employing 350 guards for numerous buildings throughout Southern California.

Thomas Reddin died of Parkinson's disease on December 4, 2004 at the age of 88. He is buried at Hollywood Forever Cemetery.


2. The Use And Effectiveness Of Community Policing In A Democracy

Sunday, December 3, 2017

Amusement Park Founder & Berry Farmer Walter Knott 1981 Loma Vista Cemetery

Walter Marvin Knott (December 11, 1889 – December 3, 1981) was an American farmer who created the Knott's Berry Farm amusement park in California and made Knott's Berry Farm jelly.

Knott was born in San Bernardino, California,[1] and grew up in Pomona, California. In the 1920s, Knott was a somewhat unsuccessful farmer whose fortunes changed when he nursed several abandoned berry plants back to health. The hybrid boysenberry, named after its creator, Rudolph Boysen, was a cross between a blackberry, red raspberry and loganberry. 

The huge berries were a hit, and the Knott family sold berries, preserves and pies from a Buena Park, California roadside stand. 

In 1934, Knott's wife Cordelia (née Hornaday, January 23, 1890 – April 12, 1974) began serving fried chicken dinners, and within a few years, lines outside the restaurant were often several hours long.[2]

To entertain the waiting crowds, Walter built a Ghost Town in 1940, using buildings relocated from Old West towns. Even after Disneyland opened in 1955 only 8 miles (13 km) away, Knott's Berry Farm continued to thrive. 

Walt Disney and Walter Knott are rumored to have had a cordial relationship; it is known that they each visited the other's park, and they were both members of the original planning council for Children's Hospital of Orange County. 

Early additions to the farm included the Ghost Town and Calico Railroad, a narrow gauge railroad in the Ghost Town area, a San Francisco cable car, a Pan-for-Gold attraction, the Calico Mine Train dark ride and the Timber Mountain Log Ride log flume ride. In 1968, the Knott family fenced the farm, charged admission for the first time, and Knott's Berry Farm officially became an amusement park.[3]

Because of his interest in American pioneer history, Knott purchased and restored the real silver mining ghost town of Calico, California in 1951. 

As a child, Walter spent a lot of time in Calico living with his uncle. During World War I he helped to build a silver mill in Calico. This period in his life influenced his decision to buy the town and restore it. In 1966, he deeded Calico to San Bernardino County, California.[4]

Walter remained active in the operation of Knott's Berry Farm until the death of Cordelia in 1974, at which point he turned his attention toward political causes,[5][6] leaving day-to-day park operations to his children. He supported conservative Republican causes. He was also a member of the John Birch Society and sponsored its Orange County chapter.[7] 

Walter Knott died in Buena Park, CA in 1981 and was buried with his wife Cordelia at Loma Vista Cemetery in Fullerton, California. He is survived by his three daughters, Marion Knott, Virginia Bender and Toni Oliphant.[8] His son, Russell, died in 2002. 

Walter Knott appeared on the December 23, 1954 episode of You Bet Your Life, hosted by Groucho Marx [9]

The Walter Knott's family no longer owns the theme park; it was sold to the Cedar Fair Entertainment Company. Additionally, The J.M. Smucker Co. now owns the "Knott's Berry Farm" brand of jam and jelly (purchased from ConAgra Foods in 2008).[10]


1. Nygaard, Norman E., Walter Knott: Twentieth Century Pioneer, pp. 93–100, Zondervan Publishing House, Grand Rapids, MI, 1965.
2. Merritt, Christopher and Lynxwiler, J. Eric, Knott's Preserved: From Boysenberry to Theme Park, the History of Knott's Berry Farm, pp. 20–31, Angel City Press, Santa Monica, CA, 2010.
3. Holmes, Roger and Bailey, Paul, Fabulous Farmer: The Story of Walter Knott and his Berry Farm, pp. 125–52, Westernlore Press, Los Angeles, CA, 1956.
4. Kooiman, Helen, Walter Knott: Keeper of the Flame, pp. 153–58, Plycon Press, Fullerton, CA, 1973.
5. Kooiman, Helen, Walter Knott: Keeper of the Flame, pp. 171–84, Plycon Press, Fullerton, CA, 1973.
6. Salts, Christiane Victoria, Cordelia Knott: Pioneering Business Woman, pp. 75–78, The Literature Connection Books, Buena Park, CA, 2009.
7. Orange County Register Far Right In O.C. Faces Turning Point
8. Flint, Peter B. (5 December 1981). "WALTER KNOTT OF KNOTT'S BERRY FARM IS DEAD".  – via
9. Groucho Marx - You Bet Your Life (18 October 2013). "You Bet Your Life #54-15 Klondike Kate; the Dosses return (Secret word: 'Name', Dec 23, 1954)".
10. Merritt, Christopher and Lynxwiler, J. Eric, Knott's Preserved: From Boysenberry to Theme Park, the History of Knoot's Berry Farm, pp. 154–60, Angel City Press, Santa Monica, CA, 2010.